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GIST - September/October 2002 Issue


     COUNSELING IS A very real work. Being a practitioner is a lot simpler. A practitioner works with the friend and speaks their healing word for themselves and their friend. First for themselves and then for the friend. Whereas, the counselor, works with the friend to guide them into positive thinking for themselves.
     It would seem that anyone in their "right mind" would seek to work as a practitioner rather than a counselor. The practitioner sees the wholeness accomplished immediately, while the counselor talks-up the concept of wholeness. 
     There are times I need to be a counselor. Point in case: my sister Mae. 
     I am the inveterate practitioner and I see everyone in my world experiencing wholeness and perfection in every area of their lives. It does not matter to me whether they are my sister, another relative, a friend or just someone who has been brought to my attention seeking wholeness.
     My sister and her husband Kip enjoyed a fine marriage of over 50 joyous years. As a team they worked together in their successful business. They have two excellent children and a marvelous grandchild in college. The marriages of both of their children are exemplary. 
     Recently Kip moved into his next dimension. 
     Mae took it hard. I spoke my word with her that he has taken his next journey and she is here to live in this experience--because she is still here. 
     As a practitioner I see her master in this new beautiful experience. 
     She called upon me to work with her.
     I told Mae, "Begin right now telling yourself I like me! Say it over and over again. Let the concept of I like me sink into your thoughts so positively that you live this thought every minute." 
     She said she felt it was a good idea, but "It just is not so."
     I listened to her heart and heard how contrary it sounded to her thinking. However, I insisted, "Say with me, Mae, I like me, I like me, I like me! Say it again and again with every breath you take. As you say I like me you will begin to see the difference in your thinking about yourself. Do not give up. Sing these words into your thought system so that you are one with the words I like me. That is all there is to it."
     Mae listened. She said, "Yes, I can feel it doing something to me."
     Like a windmill I repeated the phrase to her and for her, and also for myself. The more I said it to her, the more powerful it was for me. I could see her living this concept. I could feel her wrapping herself in this emotion. She and the phrase are ONE! It is a wonderful picture.
     Mae and I work together on this adventure in wholeness. I visit with her as often as possible living in diverse cities as we do--but she knows that I am with her as she makes these statements. She is the miracle, now!

Vignettes happen to me when I least expect them, but they are always exciting adventures into the je ne sais quoi of the mind. The brief encounters and scenes of my daily life wrap me in their charming escapade and leave me feeling magically fulfilled.

My Son, The Aviation Legend

     I WAS CRUISING CALIFORNIA visiting my family. Including several times visiting my sister Mae in Santa Ana, visiting my wife Faith in Santa Cruz, visiting my son Mark, his wife Leslie, in Santa Margarita and her parents Frank and Ingrid Nielsen, and visiting my brother Ray and his friend David Duggins in San Jacinto--I was gone four days and traveled 1,300 miles from San Diego to San Francisco and point’s in-between.
     In 1975 my son Mark and I started the University of Healing and the Church of God Unlimited. Though his passion has always been flying, he dedicated supportive energy as we established the school and church. He is vice president of the UNI.
     Every spare moment Mark would design and build ultralight aircraft that he would fly from our California ranch.
     His main interest has taken him to Santa Margarita near San Luis Obispo to his Earthstar Ranch Aircraft manufacturing plant. Since 1975 he has designed and built ultralight aircraft and sold them all over the world. He is considered an aviation legend in the ultralight aircraft industry because of his unique genius as a 21st century aircraft designer, his excellence of construction, his purity of flight and structural design and his meticulous craftsmanship. I was present when a supervisor of the FAA brought his homebuilt ultralight plane Mark had designed to be under Mark’s watchful eye for its maiden voyage. His praise of Mark’s skill and genius were endless.
     As I visited with Mark and his wife Leslie, he showed me his new Beierle Rad-Cam Engine R8500. He has designed an engine that puts out 40 hp at 3100 rpm, 18 inches diameter weighing 51 pounds. If it continues with its efficiency on its 22 hours test run, it is pollution-free. But here is Mark’s own story of his 8 cylinder radial 2 cycle cam controlled piston engine. Mark writes:


     WHY WOULD I want to design and build my own engine when so many run quite nicely and have decent power-to-weight ratios? It’s simple. I love to fly. I love the freedom of motion in the three-dimensional-environment.
     Definitions of the word freedom are rather subjective. One definition of freedom is the feeling of being at ease and unencumbered. If a plane vibrates a lot, then it is uncomfortable and less reliable. Things can shake loose. As fliers we know this. It feels unsafe, and therefore, we are encumbered with the feeling of impending doom. To enjoy flying, one important aspect is the smoothness of operation. A smooth airplane feels reliable and safe. I have studied all the available conventional engines and have found two main causes of vibration and a third less influential cause.
     First: Dynamic imbalance. With connecting rods attached to a crank pin, the piston rod assembly cannot be completely counterbalanced by the counterweight of the crankshaft since the counterweight rotates and the connecting rod travels up and down. This can almost be balanced out, but the counterweight also oscillates from side to side, which cannot be 100 percent balanced. If you balance out one factor, then the other suffers. So the current practice in engine development is to compromise between the two functions of rotation and oscillation, which leaves an unatten ded reciprocating mass that causes vibration.
     Some new cars have countershafts that are asymmetrically weighted in an attempt to oppose these forces, and these countershafts do achieve a smoother running engine, although they are still not in 100 percent dynamic balance. Using countershafts increases the complexity, cost, and weight and therefore does not suit it to ultralight engines.
     Second: Torsional vibration. This is caused by the piston’s combustion stroke in relation to the mass of the propeller and other rotational masses. When combustion takes place, the downward travel of the piston turns the crank. As the piston returns to the top, it is pushed by inertia in the rotated components. This is the main reason that a single-cylinder engine has a lot more vibration than a two-cylinder engine, and a four-stroke cycle engine has more torsional vibration than a two-stroke cycle engine. The two- stroke cycle engine fires twice as often per revolution of the crank and at one half the force. That’s why the propellers generally have to be much stronger for a four-stroke cycle engine than for a two- stroke cycle engine.
     Once I identified the two main issues that needed to be addressed to make a smoother running engine, I proceeded with my research. I decided that a centrally mounted, two- lobe cam, in place of the traditional crank pin and connecting rod assembly, would fill my needs because the pistons are traveling in and out at the same time--opposing each other’s movement--and thereby balancing their forces. Also, the combustion forces would be balanced on the cam, causing the cam to turn without any eccentric gyrational forces being fed into the centrally mounted drive shaft. This arrangement can easily be 100 percent dynamically balanced!
     Next, I addressed the THIRD CAUSE of vibration: torque pulses. I decided to use multiple pairs of cylinders set at even intervals around the perimeter to even out the power pulses. Because the cylinders are paired, they are evenly pushing on opposite lobes of the cam symmetrically, as stated before. With four, or even eight, cylinders, the power pulses are overlapping with the compression or resistance stroke being pushed by a power pulse, thereby evening out the forces that tend to pump the drive shaft and cause torsional resonance in the drive components—the other aspect of this arrangement that reduces the torsional shock seen in conventional engines is that the Beierle Rad-Cam Engine has a two-lobe cam, the pistons go through their complete cycle two times for each revolution. Because of this feature, the engine does not need a reduction drive system to bring the propeller speed down to usable levels. This not only saves weight, but also it reduces the number of connec tions between the power generation and the propeller, thereby redu cing the resonance potential.
     This type of engine was not easily manufactured until recently because of the complex shape of the cam profile that is required to achieve the proper dwell time, which is required to burn the fuel efficiently.
     To me, efficiency is also related to freedom. Having an efficient machine frees me to fly around without always wondering about the resources and the money it is costing me. Therefore, the more efficient the engine is, the more freedom I have.
     If you look at conventional engines with the crank pin rotating in one axis and the connecting rod traveling both up and down and side to side, the geometry dictates the amount of time that the piston is held at top-dead-center where the fuel is ignited. Then the piston quickly starts its downward stroke while the fuel and air mixture is still burning. This means that the fuel is being burned while expansion is taking place. That’s not the most ideal way to function because the fuel does not totally burn before it has to leave the cylinder through the exhaust port. So I decided that if the cam profile can be flatter on top, then the piston would stay at the top of the stroke longer and all of the combustion process could be completed before the down stroke started.
     You might think that this wouldn’t work because the charge of burning gases is not actually pushing down on the piston as in a traditional combustion reaction. Let me explain: If the fuel is burned completely, while being held at a constant volume in a closed container with no leaks, then when the cam rotates to the point of allowing the piston to start its down stroke, the hot and high pressure gases that are trapped in this containment push down on the piston (in a similar fashion to a steam engine), expanding the gases and thereby reducing the temperature and pressure. By the time the piston reaches the exhaust port opening, both the temperature and pressure are reduced and much less unburned hydrocarbons are being introduced into the atmosphere.
     Also, this arrangement makes for a smoother power pulse. In the traditional format of crank pin connecting rods, geometry has dictated the time the piston stays at the top of the stroke. The combustion process has its highest flame speed and force at the start of the down stroke, causing a sharp pulse pressure rise and then tapering off quickly as the piston travels down its stroke. This is somewhat like kicking the pedals on your bicycle instead of smoothly pushing down throughout the stroke. A smooth stroke can be achieved when the cam has the proper profile to allow the burn to complete the process.
     The cam drive system has other advantages. I can make different cam profiles to be used with different types of fuels. Different types of fuel burn at different rates. Avgas, such as 100 LL, contains a lot of lead in comparison to automotive unleaded gasoline. If I want to completely burn all the fuel while burning 100 LL Avgas, I must lengthen the time that the piston stays at the top of its stroke. If I want to use diesel fuel, I can shorten the time. The cam drive unit is versatile. With a suitable change in the cam profile, it can be optimized to run on any fuel.
     The reduction of temperature and pressure coming out of the exhaust means that more work is being done inside the engine and producing torque. It also means that the exhaust is quieter and smoother, making it easier to muffle and making flying a more pleasant experience.
     This project started out 30 years ago as a personal goal to have an engine for my airplanes (Earthstar Aircraft) that was as harmonious with the laws of physics and nature as possible. As the development continued, it became obvious that these concepts are popular with other people, too. I shifted into high gear, and designed and built prototype engines to find out whether my concepts had merit. I am happy to say that they do.
     My latest prototype has 22 hours of running time on it and currently puts out about 40 hp while burning only 1.4 gallons per hour. These figures have not yet been verified, but I will have the tools to do so very soon. I have been running my engine with a propeller from a Mosler engine at 3100 rpm. The prop is a 54-inch length by 22-inch pitch. This engine weighs 41 pounds and is incredibly smooth.
     The exhaust of the current prototype engine is only 700°F at full throttle and full lean setting. I am using cylinders from a Zenoah G62 model airplane engine, and the exhaust ports are too high on the cylinder thereby letting out the exhaust before the full potential of the expansion takes place. That is why the exhaust temperature is higher than the 350°F target that I believe to be possible. As a reference, a typical four stroke cycle engine has a fully leaned exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of around 1,400°F or more. A two stroke cycle engine will not last very long if fully leaned. When run at a temperature that at which the two-stroke cycle engine will last, the EGT is typically between 1,200°F and 1,300°F depending on the cylinder type.
     In the case of the Beierle Rad-Cam Engine, the dwell of the piston at top-dead-center is long enough to contain the combustion in a constant volume environment, allowing the combustion to be completed and the fire burned out completely before the expansion stroke begins. This is why the exhaust temperature is so much lower than on a conventional crankshaft and swinging rod type of engine. The theory here is that more work has been extracted from the expansion cycle if the temperature deferential is greater between the temperature at the beginning of expansion and opening of the exhaust port.

     The engine is not ready for production yet. I don’t know what the price will be or when it will be ready. My goal is to produce this engine at a price comparable to other engines in its size and efficiency range. I am working toward having it available in eight months to a year. You can keep abreast of the progress by checking our website: www.Rad-Cam.com Happy flying!

-Dr Herbert L Beierle